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2017. 09. 26. kedd - Jusztina 13°C | 22°C Még több cikk.

Nem oltatták be gyerekeiket, ezért bíróság elé álltak

Szentes - Kiskorú veszélyeztetése miatt akár öt év szabadságvesztésre is ítélhetik a szülőket, de az országban az eddigi perekben nem születtek súlyos büntetések.
Szegeden szerdán bíróság elé állt az a szentesi pár, amelyik megtagadta a védőoltások beadását négy gyermekének, ügyük 1998 óta húzódik. A következő tárgyalást szeptember 11-ére tűzték ki.

A Szegedi Városi Bíróság folyosóján tegnap feszült hangulatban várt a tárgyalás megkezdésére Cs. H. és B. Z., az a Szentes környéki tanyán élő anya és apa, akik nem járultak hozzá, hogy négy közös gyermeküknek beadják a védőoltásokat. Ellenük az ÁNTSZ indított büntetőpert kiskorú veszélyeztetése miatt, amelynek ugyan már volt egy tárgyalása 2007 októberében, de most újra kellett indítani az eljárást, mivel közben fél év eltelt.

Az élettársak idegessége érthető, ügyük 1998, első gyermekük megszületése óta húzódik, és nagy a tét, elvben öt év szabadságvesztéssel is sújthatják őket. Igaz, ilyen súlyos ítélet még nem született az országban, eddig minden perben eltérő határozatot hoztak. Az édesanya volt kettejük közül a bőbeszédűbb, noha először kijelentette: nem nyilatkozik a sajtónak. Szerinte ugyanis minden szavukat elferdíti a média. Az 1998–2003 között született gyerekekkel kapcsolatban azt mondta, minden a régi: a két iskolás magántanuló, a kicsik otthon nevelkednek. A nagyok korábban heti három napra beülhettek az iskolapadba, március óta azonban nem engedélyezik.

A szülők és ügyvédjük a bíróságon. Feszült hangulatban. Fotó: Frank Yvette
A szülők és ügyvédjük a bíróságon. Feszült hangulatban. Fotó: Frank Yvette

Védőjük, Rébeli Szabó Tamás ügyvéd arról tájékoztatott, hogy abban a polgári peres eljárásban, amelyet a szülők ellen először a gyámhatóság indított gyermek veszélyeztetése miatt, még nem vett részt. Akkor a kicsik a szülőknél maradhattak. Szerinte amiatt, hogy eltérő döntéseket hoznak az országban a hasonló perekben, nem lehet megjósolni, milyen ítélet születik. Tavaly még egy alkotmánybírósági állásfoglalást is kiadtak arról, hogy a szülőnek jogában áll tiltakozni a kötelező védőoltások beadása ellen.

A vegán életmódról

Tegnap Schlichter Erika tanácsa tanúkat hallgatott meg, a gyerekek volt háziorvosát és egy családgondozót. Kiderült, a szülők az úgynevezett vegán diéta szerint étkeznek, szerintük az egészséges életmód miatt gyerekeiket nem fenyegetik a betegségek. A gyerekorvos elmondta, mivel a vegán diétát az jellemzi, hogy még tojást és tejet sem kapnak a gyerekek, voltak problémák. A kislány, Lívia például csontgyengeségben szenvedett. Az anya azt állította, a D-vitamin adagolásnak köszönhetően a gyerek mára teljesen rendbe jött. Mivel két tanú nem jelent meg a tárgyaláson, őket szeptember 11-én hallgatják meg, valószínűleg akkor már ítélet is várható.

Olvasóink írták

  • 4. uhhhhh 2008. július 15. 11:30
    „Te jó ég, mi ez az angol massssza???”
  • 3. neeeeeeee 2008. május 23. 12:06
    „Ne kelljen már angolul végigolvasnom! please!”
  • 2. Marcsikaa 2008. május 21. 06:55
    „Ehhez már nem lehet mit hozzátenni.”
  • 1. Palinko Balint 2008. május 18. 16:56
    „Autism and Mercury

    by Tim O´Shea,DCThis article is excerpted from Dr. O´Shea´s revised edition of The Sanctity of Human Blood.Inquiry into vaccine safety is exploding like never before, even in the popular press. Research coming from dozens of mainstream medical studies can no longer be easily suppressed, as it has been in the past, especially with the prevalence of online information exchange.Last September, some 2,000 people, mostly MDs, assembled at the Town and Country resort in San Diego to hear the latest research on autism. Following the April 2000 Congressional hearings on autism and vaccines, this epidemic can no longer be ignored. The figure of one autistic infant for every 150 is now widely documented.Dr. Stephanie Cave presented enlightening data on mercury toxicity, drawn largely from the brilliant work of Sallie Bernard. Dr. Cave explained how: By age two, American children have received 237 micrograms of mercury through vaccines alone, which far exceeds current EPA "safe" levels of .1 mcg/kg. per day. That´s one-tenth of a microgram, not one microgram.Three days in particular may be singled out as spectacularly toxic for infants:Day of birth: hepatitis B-12 mcg mercury30 x safe levelAt 4 months: DTaP and HiB on same day - 50 mcg mercury60 x safe levelAt 6 months: Hep B, Polio - 62.5 mcg mercury 78 x safe level At 15 months the child receives another 50 mcg41 x safe levelThese figures are calculated for an infant´s average weight in kilograms for each age.These one-day blasts of mercury are called "bolus doses". Although they far exceed "safe" levels, there has never been any research conducted on the toxicity of such bolus doses of mercury given to infants all these years. InconceivableHistorically, the toxicity of mercury has been known for more than a century. The Mad Hatter was more than a fantasy character from Alice in Wonderland. Mad Hatter´s disease became well known in England in the mid-1800s, when hat-makers were subject to inhaling the vapors from the mercury-based stiffening compound they used on felt to make top hats.Sources of MercuryIt is interesting to learn that common household remedies that were used up into the 1960s like mercurochrome and "teething powder" were often the cause of acute mercury poisoning and disease.In the U.S., EPA mercury toxicity studies have involved contamination from fish, air, and other environmental sources.Methylmercury has long been associated with serious neurological disorders, demyelinating diseases, gut disease, and visual damage.The mercury in vaccines, however, is in the form of thimerosal, which is 50 times more toxic than plain old mercury. Reasons for this include:? Injected mercury is far more toxic than ingested mercury.? There´s no blood-brain barrier in infants. ? Mercury accumulates in brain cells and nerves.? Infants don´t produce bile, which is necessary to excrete mercury. Thimerosal becomes organic mercury Once it is in nerve tissue, it is converted irreversibly to its inorganic form. Thimerosal is a much more toxic form of mercury than one would get from eating open-sea fish; it has to do with the difficulty of clearing thimerosal from the blood. Thimerosal is converted to ethylmercury, an organic form that has a preference for nerve cells. Without a complete blood-brain barrier, an infant´s brain and spinal cord are sitting ducks. Once in the nerve cells, mercury is changed back to the inorganic form and becomes tightly bound. Mercury can then remain for years, like a time-release capsule, causing permanent degeneration and death of brain cells.Bernard also notes that the body normally clears mercury by fixing it to bile, but before six months of age, infants don´t produce bile. Result: mercury can´t be excreted.Four separate government agencies have set safe levels for methylmercury, but no safe levels have ever been set for thimerosal, because thimerosal isn´t included in toxicity studies. Theoretically, that means that the above excesses of safe levels of mercury on the single days listed above are actually 50 times higher.Does the fact that the mercury is accompanied by a vaccine somehow place it above scrutiny? The Sallie Bernard study of vaccines and mercury toxicity was probably the main reason Congress began to see the obvious correlation.Mercury And VaccinesHere´s a curious "coincidence." In the late 1930s, Leo Kanner identified autism as a new type of mental disorder. So when was thimerosal introduced into vaccines? The 1930sA few years ago, Bernard and her associates began to notice a striking similarity between the symptoms of autism and the symptoms of mercury poisoning. The more research she did, the more it seemed that these two diseases were virtually identical.Autism and mercury poisoning damage the: brain/nerve cells; eyes; immune system; gastrointestinal system; muscle control; and the speech center.Although mercury toxicity has been studied for decades, and EPA safety levels have been set, during all that time a child´s greatest exposure to mercury - thimerosal in vaccines - was never even included in the toxicity studies! The talk has always been about methylmercury from seafood and the environment, totally ignoring the two most toxic sources of mercury for children: vaccines and dental amalgams.The EPA has no jurisdiction over drugs. That´s the FDA´s job. This is why vaccines and amalgams don´t even figure into the equation when it comes to setting "safe" levels of mercury.But the FDA does have jurisdiction over drugs and drug companies, right? And over drug company publications, like the Merck Manual, the standard cookbook for drugs and diseases found in every doctor´s office in the world. Surely the FDA, as the government agency charged with safeguarding the nation´s health, would want the section on mercury toxicity to warn doctors about the two biggest sources for children: thimerosal and dental amalgams, wouldn´t you think?Yet looking at the Merck Manual (1999), in the section on mercury poisoning (p. 2636), thimerosal and dental amalgams again are not even mentioned! How can this be, when mercury is widely acknowledged as the third most deadly toxin in the world and thimerosal and amalgams dwarf the trace amounts of mercury from fish and other environmental sources of mercury?Only one thing can a blackout information over an entire area of study for years at a time in this way - big money.Such an omission probably wouldn´t have anything to do with the revolving door that exists between the FDA; the EPA; the NIH; "and the sweet positions held by their members before and after those grueling years of public service; or with the 800 waivers of the conflict of interest rule that the FDA has granted in the past two years to "experts," who are paid consultants to the drug companies-consultants who are also members of the FDA advisory committees that make decisions about whether or not to approve vaccines and drugs..." (USA Today, Sept. 25, 2000) No, of course not.Soaking up the MercuryIn the San Diego conference on autism, Dr. Amy Holmes gave perhaps the only lucid presentation about treatment. She explained how chelating drugs alone, which go through the blood like Pac Man munching up mercury, don´t do much good for autism. That´s because most mercury clears from the blood very soon. Mercury in thimerosal is stored in the gut, liver and brain, and as previously mentioned, becomes very tightly bound to the cells. Once inside those cells, or inside the blood-brain barrier, the mercury is reconverted back to its inorganic form. Locked into these cells, the mercury can then do either immediate cell damage or become latent and cause the onset of autism, brain disorders, or digestive chaos years later.Dr. Holmes reported success using alphalipoic acid as an agent to cross the blood-brain barrier to soak up mercury. Once the mercury is brought back into the bloodstream, standard chelators like DMSA can then take it out.Dr. Holmes has used her protocol on about 300 autistics so far, and shows consistent increases in IQ scores.FDA: Protector of Whom?In the face of all this new awareness, it was astounding that in July 2000 the FDA came out with the "parallel-universe" pronouncement that "vaccines have safe levels of mercury." Especially after their 1998 position: "... over-the-counter drug products containing thimerosal and other mercury forms are not generally recognized as safe and effective." As if there were any doubt as to who´s really running the show, inconceivable also is the impotence of FDA´s request to the vaccine manufacturers to discontinue the use of thimerosal in vaccines (LINK TO ARTICLE ON SITE) The same month that MMWR published this, the CDC made the same milquetoast request.It´s a bit like saying: "Hey guys, since all these kids are turning into vegetables and most of our researchers know it´s the mercury, would you mind not putting any more thimerosal in your vaccines, please? No hurry, though. Whenever you´re ready. No need to dump all those batches of vaccine just because people are finding out it´s the mercury that´s destroying children´s brain cells."The members of the FDA who decide which vaccines get approved make up the advisory board. In his recent House investigation on vaccines, Rep. Dan Burton found out that financial statements of advisory board members are "incomplete." Noting that this is the only branch of government that allows incomplete financials, in September 2000, Burton called the advisory board´s sweetheart arrangements with the vaccine manufacturers a "violation of the public trust." This includes 70 percent of advisory board members owning stock in vaccines, owning patents on vaccines, and accepting salaries and benefits as employees of the drug companies.A Matter of TrustStill think you can trust the government or your physician with your children´s blood? Despite the facts and events cited above, consider this joint statement of the U.S. Public Health Services and the American Academy of Pediatrics:"There is a significant safety margin incorporated into all the acceptable mercury exposure limits. There are no data or evidence of any harm caused by the level of exposure that some children may have encountered in following the existing immunization schedule ... Infants and children who have received thimerosal-containing vaccines do not need to be tested for mercury exposure" (TRY TO REPLACE THIS WITH LINK FROM SITE MMWR, vol. 45, 1999).These are blatant Orwellian distortions. No harm? ? What about the autism epidemic and all the evidence linking it with mercury cited above? ? What about the single day doses of mercury cited above that are dozens of times in excess of the EPA´s own safety levels? ? If everything is so safe, then why did they ask the vaccine pushers to kindly discontinue thimerosal from vaccines as soon as possible at the end of this same statement? It is beyond the scope of this paper to really go into the politics of mercury. In researching mercury toxicity, a whole area of "dry rot" has been unearthed that deserves its own story. This is the shocking story of how the American Dental Association and the California Dental Association have been systematically hiding the truth about mercury toxicity in fillings for decades. Silver fillings aren´t just silver. They´re 50 percent mercury and extremely toxic; every dentist knows it (www.altcorp.com,http://www.amalgam.org/).In a ludicrous blast of irony, both the ADA and the CDA have inserted into their "code of ethics" strict commandments forbidding dentists from ever revealing to patients the realities of mercury toxicity. No dentist is allowed to recommend removal of mercury amalgams for health reasons, nor may tell the patient about mercury toxicity even if the patient asks. This gag order has been in place for since the beginning of American dentistry. Exaggeration? Check their websites out:www.amalgam.org/#anchor69176 www.amalgam.org/#anchor69541 Do you think dentists put mercury into their own families´ teeth? Ask them. Anyone who is not a dentist is not constrained by the gag order, imposed on American dentists by the ADA, against telling patients what many perceptive researchers in the field of mercury toxicity already know: that no children should ever get mercury amalgam fillings.Laughingstock of the WestResearchers across Europe are generally appalled at the massive amounts of vaccines given to American children under two years old. Although Europeans are not as obsessed with vaccines as we are, they do vaccinate. But most of Europe gives very few vaccinations to children under two years old, primarily because of the unformed gut, immune system, and blood-brain barrier. This intellectual isolation of ours regarding vaccines is a testimony to the suffocating "brain control" exerted on us by the popular press and all media. Like sheep to the slaughter, we don´t know enough to be appalled by our own ignorance.Autistic GutHeadlining the September 2000 San Diego Conference was Andrew Wakefield, the British surgeon whose shocking new discoveries show that mercury toxicity alone is not the only factor linking vaccines with the autism epidemic. Dr. Wakefield´s research centers around the MMR vaccine - measles/mumps/rubella - which does not contain thimerosal.Expanding on his presentation at the April 2000 Burton hearings, Dr. Wakefield explained how at least three-quarters of autistics have pathologically blocked bowels, due to the huge swelling of the tissue lining the intestine. In virtually every autistic patient they examined, this nodular hyperplasia is both an immune response and an autoimmune response that Wakefield and O´Leary have clearly linked to the presence of measles virus from the MMR shot. No other virus was found in those cells. It is a new bowel pathology.Wakefield showed graphs of the U.S. and U.K. 10 years apart that were identical in tracing the skyrocketing incidence of autism just after the MMR vaccine was introduced. He also showed how the incidence of measles had dropped over 85 percent on its own before the MMR was introduced.One incredible study cited by Wakefield showed how 76 percent of children whose mothers were exposed to atypical measles became autistic after the MMR shot! He called this a "background susceptibility" or predisposition to autism.Wakefield reminds us that in neither country have there ever been comparative studies on giving multiple vaccines (polyvalent) on the same day. This custom of ours, with both the DPT and the MMR, is not scientific by any stretch, and is primarily for the convenience of those administering the shots, and those being paid per vaccine. As a result, there is a good chance of geometric ill effects.Then Wakefield cited the original MMR study (Buynak, Journal of the American Medical Association 1969, vol. 207). Not only was the safety of multiple vaccines never mentioned, there was no follow-up to the study to see if their conclusions were correct. In the usual manner of testing vaccines on the live population, MMR was simply tacked onto the mandatory schedule, and we´ve never looked back.Despite studies in 1981 on Air Force personnel showing major synergistic adverse effects in the gut from the combination of measles and rubella vaccines, the mandatory schedule went unchanged.A Glimmer of Hope Despite these formidable obstacles, doubts are creeping into the overall public "consciousness" about the safety of vaccines. At one in 150, the fact of autism as an epidemic can no longer be covered up. The work of Wakefield, O´Leary, Megson and Bernard is getting more and more difficult to explain away. Rep. Dan Burton seems relentless in his efforts to acquaint Congress with the meretricious relationship between the FDA Advisory Committee and the vaccine manufacturers. The massive advertising campaign about the safety of vaccines in the popular media, which is certain to be stepped up in the next few months, is going to look very hollow in the light of clean, unbiased research that is not funded by parties who stand to make billions from certain predetermined results. And the internet makes this well-referenced, scientific work accessible to the public without the usual monodimensional smokescreen from the popular press.Ultimately, the value of the San Diego "Conference on Autism" was its signal that autism will not be allowed to slip from the public awareness, like so many other feature stories that come and go. The simple truth has been unveiled, and anyone who looks can see it clearly: our prime question should not be asking how we can cure autism once it occurs. The evidence is now overwhelming that in most cases, this new epidemic that we call autism is a preventable disease.
    Autism and Mercury Detoxification

    P. Kane, Ph.D. and J. Mercola, D.O. Recently, it has been proposed that autism may be the aftermath of exposure to mercury such as ethyl mercury used as a preservative, thimerosal, in pediatric vaccinations. The article in this newsletter issue reviews this evidence. Currently Recommended Pediatric Mercury ProtocolThe protocol is always being improved. Drs. Klinghardt, Kane and Mercola revised this in September 2000 and the most current recommendations can be found by clicking here. Small changes are likely to be regularly posted but we will likely revise the protocol in December when we all are presenters at the Healing Your Brain 2000 Seminar. We currently are planning hold a one day workshop at the American Academy of Environmental Medicine to invite some of the top clinicians in mercury detoxification to further improve the program. Additionally, Wayne Obie, of TalkInternational.com is planning on facilitating an international collaboration on a revised mercury detoxification program.What is DMSA and Why Don´t We Recommend It?DMSA is a FDA currently approved drug. It is a mixed disulfide in which each of the sulfur atoms is in disulfide linkage with a cysteine molecule forming water soluble chelates which increases the urinary excretion of lead.There are a number of physicians who have started to use DMSA to remove the mercury from children with autism. The dose used for mercury detoxification is much lower than that for lead and some children seem to have received benefit from this approach.A time released DMSA has been suggested for 7 days on, 7 days off or 3 days on, 4 days off for an extended period of time (up to 6 months).However, some natural medicine clinicians have some serious concerns about the use of DMSA. There have been cases of:seizures increased self-stimming and compromised central nervous system function in some children DMSA and Mercury Redistribution To The BrainIt appears that DMSA and lipoic acid can create tissue redistribution of mercury as decreasing Hg levels in the kidney (the organ accumulating Hg most abundantly) increases Hg concentrations of Hg in blood, brain, lung, heart, muscle and liver (Gregus et al). Natural medical physicians throughout the US have reported MS symptoms in adults and intractable seizures in pediatric patients with high dose and extended use of DMSA (2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid), Chemet or Succimer. Other Problems With DMSAExtended use of DMSA can cause mild to moderate neutropenia with increased SGOT, SGPT, Platelet count, Cholesterol, Alkaline Phosphatase and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Adverse reactions to DMSA include ataxia, convulsions, rash, nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, headache, dizziness, sensorimotor neuropathy, decreased urination, arrhythmia, infection. Zinc excretion doubles during the administration of DMSA. Patients must be kept hydrated as renal function can be compromised. For the above described reasons in all good conscious we can not recommend the use of DMSA for the treatment of mercury toxic pediatric patients.Approaching the fragile brain architecture of young children with autism, PDD and seizure disorders brings about tremendous responsibility in protecting the children from invasive interventions that risk alteration in brain function. DMPS Recommended Chelating Agent The physicians who support the use of DMSA claim that they do not use DMPS because it is an unapproved drug and the cost.Both of these concerns are not valid as DMPS has undergone phase one and two FDA trials and has been approved for use distribution in bulk form by compounding pharmacists. Phase 3 trials were not completed due to lack of funding.The medical literature favors DMPS over DMSA as the drug of choice. Challenge doses of DMSA to determine heavy metal load are often unremarkable as DMSA is a weak chelator. DMPS yields clinically useful spills of mercury and other heavy metals into the urine. Dose for dose DMSA costs much less than DMPS. But since the DMPS is only used once per month, the total cost is actually significantly lower than DMSA which must be used 28 times per month.Hair Analysis For Diagnosis and TreatmentFirst, a determination must be made if, in fact, there is a heavy metal burden and if so specifically which heavy metals are involved such as aluminum, mercury, lead or others.This is the reason why hair analysis is a recommended initial screen. At this time we only advise two labs for this determination. Trace Elements in Austin, Texas and Analytical Research in Arizona. Both of these labs do not wash the hair samples prior to analysis. This is a key factor to proper interpretation of the other nontoxic minerals.Other labs would likely give proper heavy metal results, but the interpretation of the other minerals is key to an effective supplementation program. Chelation removes other minerals aside from mercury and these must be replaced properly if one wished to avoid complications.Establishing Metabolic Stability Prior To DetoxificationOne must be relatively healthy to sustain the process of detoxification. Once metabolic stability is established physicians often find that gentle biological interventions clear heavy metal burdens without the need for medication that holds the potential risk of negative side effects or merely redistribution of heavy metals. Clearing heavy metals may be approached by first reestablishing the mineral base, supporting biliary function/ digestion, insuring the patient is properly hydrated (children with autism are frequently dehydrated), and most importantly supporting hepatic function and metabolismAdults with heavy metal toxicity generally have significant suppression of omega 6 arachidonic acid and a significant elevation of very long chain fatty acids (Kane) as the cellular impact of heavy metals burdens block receptor sites such as G proteins and ultimately suppress the beta oxidation of lipids and cellular respiration. Children with autism consistently present with an elevation of very long chain fatty acids.However, red cell lipid levels of arachidonic are variable, elevated in some patients while deeply suppressed in others. Dietary Fat Intervention Must Be ConsideredAdministration of fish oils suppresses omega 6 and structural lipids and this will suppress the production of arachidonic acid. To balance fat metabolism it is crucial to stabilize omega 6 fatty acids and arachidonic acid before introducing omega 3 lipids. Patient outcomes may be compromised if one uses fish oils prior to omega 6 fatty acids. The omega 6 fatty acid of choice would be evening primrose oil. Additionally, supporting the digestion of fats with bile salts and lipase is frequently required to maximize fat absorption and digestion.Japan and Mercury Exposure ExampleThe impact of Hg upon human health was brought to light in the mid-50s with the Minamata disaster in Japan. As noted in the documentary ´Message to Minamata to the World´ the impact of mercury is devastating, most prominently to the CNS. Interestingly, autistic behavior can observed in the documentary of Minamata children in original footage after the disaster. In 1993 Kane found an interesting correlation in the literature between autism and mercury with the occurrence of autism presenting in adulthood occurring in Japan. The presentation of autism in these individuals was linked to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, the most common urea cycle defect. Damage to this enzyme can occur with exposure to mercury. Low levels of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) leads to states of hyperammonemia, seizures and stroke. The enzyme OTC controls ammonia, critical issues in states of epilepsy and autism. The often spacy, confused behavior ´brain fog´ that is frequently observed in these disorders may be attributed states of hyperammonemia as ammonia reaches the brain. Suggested treatment of mildly suppressed levels of OTC includes sodium benzoate and phenylacetate. However, Kane and other clinicians have observed positive clinical usefulness of Ca/Mg butyrate, digestive intervention targeted to biliary flow, appropriate buffers, and stabilization of electrolytes and the trace mineral base.



    Autism: a Novel Form of Mercury Poisoning

    S. Bernard, B.A., A. Enayati, M.S.M.E., L. Redwood, M.S.N., H. Roger, B.A., T. BinstockSallie Bernard, ARC Research, 14 Commerce Drive, Cranford, NJ 07901 USA, 908.276.6300, fax 908.276.1301Summary Autism is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that autism may affect 1 in 150 U. S. children. Exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Thimerosal, a preservative added to many vaccines, has become a major source of mercury in children who, within their first two years, may have received a quantity of mercury that exceeds safety guidelines. A review of medical literature and U.S. government data suggests that i) many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury exposure from thimerosal; (ii) this type of autism represents an unrecognized mercurial syndrome; and (iii) genetic and non-genetic factors establish a predisposition whereby thimerosal´s adverse effects occur only in some children. IntroductionAutistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome with onset prior to age 36 months. Diagnostic criteria consist of impairments in sociality and communication plus repetitive and stereotypic behaviors (1). Traits strongly associated with autism include movement disorders and sensory dysfunctions (2). Although autism may be apparent soon after birth, most autistic children experience at least several months, even a year or more of normal development -- followed by regression, defined as loss of function or failure to progress (2,3,4).The neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg) has long been recognized (5). Primary data derive from victims of contaminated fish (Japan - Minamata Disease) or grain (Iraq, Guatemala, Russia); from acrodynia (Pink Disease) induced by Hg in teething powders; and from individual instances of mercury poisoning (HgP), many occurring in occupational settings (e.g., Mad Hatter´s Disease). Animal and in vitro studies also provide insights into the mechanisms of Hg toxicity. More recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) have determined that the typical amount of Hg injected into infants and toddlers via childhood immunizations has exceeded government safety guidelines on an individual (6) and cumulative vaccine basis (7). The mercury in vaccines derives from thimerosal (TMS), a preservative which is 49.6% ethylmercury (eHg) (7). Past cases of HgP have presented with much inter-individual variation, depending on the dose, type of mercury, method of administration, duration of exposure, and individual sensitivity. Thus, while commonalities exist across the various instances of HgP, each set of variables has given rise to a different disease manifestation (8,9,10,11). It is hypothesized that the regressive form of autism represents another form of mercury poisoning, based on a thorough correspondence between autistic and HgP traits and physiological abnormalities, as well as on the known exposure to mercury through vaccines. Furthermore, other phenomena are consistent with a causal Hg-ASD relationship. These include: a) symptom onset shortly after immunization; (b) ASD prevalence increases corresponding to vaccination increases; (c) similar sex ratios of affected individuals; (d) a high heritability rate for autism paralleling a genetic predisposition to Hg sensitivity at low doses; and (e) parental reports of autistic children with elevated Hg. Trait ComparisonASD manifests a constellation of symptoms with much inter-individual variation (3,4). A comparison of traits defining, nearly universal to, or commonly found in autism with those known to arise from mercury poisoning is given in Table I. The characteristics defining or strongly associated with autism are also more fully described.Autism has been conceived primarily as a psychiatric condition; and two of its three diagnostic criteria are based upon the observable traits of a) impairments in sociality, most commonly social withdrawal or aloofness, and b) a variety of perseverative or stereotypic behaviors and the need for sameness, which strongly resemble obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Differential diagnosis may include childhood schizophrenia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorder, and other neuroses. Related behaviors commonly found in ASD individuals are irrational fears, poor eye contact, aggressive behaviors, temper tantrums, irritability, and inexplicable changes in mood (1,2,12-17). Mercury poisoning, when undetected, is often initially diagnosed as a psychiatric disorder (18). Commonly occurring symptoms include: a) "extreme shyness," indifference to others, active avoidance of others, or "a desire to be alone";(b) depression, "lack of interest" and "mental confusion;"(c) irritability, aggression, and tantrums in children and adults;(d) anxiety and fearfulness; and (e) emotional lability. Neuroses, including schizoid and obsessive-compulsive traits, problems in inhibition of perseveration, and stereotyped behaviors, have been reported in a number of cases; and lack of eye contact was observed in one 12 year old girl with mercury vapor poisoning (18-35).The third diagnostic criterion for ASD is impairment in communication (1). Historically, about half of those with classic autism failed to develop meaningful speech (2), and articulation difficulties are common (3). Higher functioning individuals may have language fluency but still show semantic and pragmatic errors (3,36). In many cases of ASD, verbal IQ is lower than performance IQ (3). Similarly, mercury-exposed children and adults show a marked difficulty with speech (9,19,37). In milder cases scores on language tests may be lower than those of unexposed controls (31,38). Iraqi children who were postnatally poisoned developed articulation problems, from slow, slurred word production to an inability to generate meaningful speech; while Iraqi babies exposed prenatally either failed to develop language or presented with severe language deficits in childhood (23,24,39). Workers with Mad Hatter´s disease had word retrieval and articulation difficulties (21). Nearly all cases of ASD and HgP involve disorders of physical movement (2,30,40). Clumsiness or lack of coordination has been described in many higher functioning ASD individuals (41). Infants and toddlers later diagnosed with autism may fail to crawl properly or may fall over while sitting or standing; and the movement disturbances typically occur on the right side of the body (42). Problems with intentional movement and imitation are common in ASD, as are a variety of unusual stereotypic behaviors such as toe walking, rocking, abnormal postures, choreiform movements, spinning; and hand flapping (2,3,43,44). Noteworthy because of similarities to autism are reports in Hg literature of: a) children in Iraq and Japan who were unable to stand, sit, or crawl (34,39);(b) Minamata disease patients whose movement disturbances were localized to one side of the body, and a girl exposed to Hg vapor who tended to fall to the right (18,34);(c) flapping motions in an infant poisoned from contaminated pork (37) and in a man injected with thimerosal (27); (d) choreiform movements in mercury vapor intoxication (19);(e) toe walking in a moderately poisoned Minamata child (34); (f) poor coordination and clumsiness among victims of acrodynia (45);(g) rocking among infants with acrodynia (11); and (h) unusual postures observed in both acrodynia and mercury vapor poisoning (11,31). The presence of flapping motions in both diseases is of interest because it is such an unusual behavior that it has been recommended as a diagnostic marker for autism (46).Virtually all ASD subjects show a variety of sensory abnormalities (2). Auditory deficits are present in a minority of individuals and can range from mild to profound hearing loss (2,47). Over- or under-reaction to sound is nearly universal (2,48), and deficits in language comprehension are often present (3). Pain sensitivity or insensitivity is common, as is a general aversion to touch; abnormal sensation in the extremities and mouth may also be present and has been detected even in toddlers under 12 months old (2,49). There may be a variety of visual disturbances, including sensitivity to light (2,50,51,52). As in autism, sensory issues are reported in virtually all instances of Hg toxicity (40). HgP can lead to mild to profound hearing loss (40); speech discrimination is especially impaired (9,34,). Iraqi babies exposed prenatally showed exaggerated reaction to noise (23), while in acrodynia, patients reported noise sensitivity (45). Abnormal sensation in the extremities and mouth is the most common sensory disturbance (25,28). Acrodynia sufferers and prenatally exposed Iraqi babies exhibited excessive pain when bumping limbs and an aversion to touch (23,24,45,53). A range of visual problems has been reported, including photophobia (18,23,34).Comparison Of Biological AbnormalitiesThe biological abnormalities commonly found in autism are listed in Table II, along with the corresponding pathologies arising from mercury exposure. Especially noteworthy similarities are described.Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which has been characterized as "a disorder of neuronal organization, that is, the development of the dentritic tree, synaptogenesis, and the development of the complex connectivity within and between brain regions" (54). Depressed expression of neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs), which are critical during brain development for proper synaptic structuring, has been found in one study of autism (55). Organic mercury, which readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, preferentially targets nerve cells and nerve fibers (56); primates accumulate the highest Hg-levels in the brain relative to other organs (40). Furthermore, although most cells respond to mercurial injury by modulating levels of glutathione (GSH), metallothionein, hemoxygenase, and other stress proteins, neurons tend to be "markedly deficient in these responses" and thus are less able to remove Hg and more prone to Hg-induced injury (56). In the developing brain, mercury interferes with neuronal migration, depresses cell division, disrupts microtubule function, and reduces NCAMs (28, 57-59).While damage has been observed in a number of brain areas in autism, many nuclei and functions are spared (36). HgP´s damage is similarly selective (40). Numerous studies link autism with neuronal atypicalities within the amygdala, hippocampi, basal ganglia, the Purkinje and granule cells of the cerebellum, brainstem, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex (36,60-69). Each of these areas can be affected by HgP (10,34,40,70-73). Migration of Hg, including eHg, into the amygdala is particularly noteworthy, because in primates this brain region has neurons specific for eye contact (74) and it is implicated in autism and in social behaviors (65,66,75).Autistic brains show neurotransmitter irregularities which are virtually identical to those arising from Hg exposure:? both high or low serotonin and dopamine, depending on the subjects studied; ? elevated epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma and brain; elevated glutamate; and ? acetylcholine deficiency in hippocampus (2,21,76-83). Gillberg and Coleman (2) estimate that 35-45% of autistics eventually develop epilepsy. A recent MEG study reported epileptiform activity in 82% of 50 regressive autistic children; in another study, half the autistic children expressed abnormal EEG activity during sleep (84). Autistic EEG abnormalities tend to be non-specific and have a variety of patterns (85). Unusual epileptiform activity has been found in a number of mercury poisoning cases (18,27,34,86-88).Early Hg exposure enhances tendencies toward epileptiform activity with a reduced level of seizure-discharge amplitude (89), a finding consistent with the subtlety of seizures in many autism spectrum children (84,85). The fact that Hg increases extracellular glutamate would also contribute to epileptiform activity (90). Some autistic children show a low capacity to oxidize sulfur compounds and low levels of sulfate (91,92). These findings may be linked with HgP because (a) Hg preferentially binds to sulfhydryl molecules (-SH) such as cysteine and GSH, thereby impairing various cellular functions (40), and (b) mercury can irreversibly block the sulfate transporter NaSi cotransporter NaSi-1, present in kidneys and intestines, thus reducing sulfate absorption (93). Besides low sulfate, many autistics have low GSH levels, abnormal GSH-peroxidase activity within erythrocytes, and decreased hepatic ability to detoxify xenobiotics (91,94,95). GSH participates in cellular detoxification of heavy metals (96); hepatic GSH is a primary substrate for organic-Hg clearance from the human (40); and intraneuronal GSH participates in various protective responses against Hg in the CNS (56). By preferentially binding with GSH, preventing absorption of sulfate, or inhibiting the enzymes of glutathione metabolism (97), Hg might diminish GSH bioavailability. Low GSH can also derive from chronic infection (98,99), which would be more likely in the presence of immune impairments arising from mercury (100). Furthermore, mercury disrupts purine and pyrimidine metabolism (97,10). Altered purine or pyrimidine metabolism can induce autistic features and classical autism (2,101,102), suggesting another mechanism by which Hg can contribute to autistic traits.Autistics are more likely to have: ? allergies ? asthma ? selective IgA deficiency (sIgAd) ? enhanced expression of HLA-DR antigen ? and an absence of interleukin-2 receptors ? as well as familial autoimmunity ? and a variety of autoimmune phenomena o These include elevated serum IgG o and ANA titers, o IgM and o IgG brain antibodies, o and myelin basic protein (MBP) antibodies (103-110). Similarly, atypical responses to Hg have been ascribed to allergic or autoimmune reactions (8), and genetic predisposition to such reactions may explain why Hg sensitivity varies so widely by individual (88,111).Children who developed acrodynia were more likely to have asthma and other allergies (11); IgG brain autoantibodies, MBP, and ANA have been found in HgP subjects (18,111,112); and mice genetically prone to develop autoimmune diseases "are highly susceptible to mercury-induced immunopathological alterations" even at the lowest doses (113). Additionally, many autistics have reduced natural killer cell (NK) function, as well as immune-cell subsets shifted in a Th2 direction and increased urine neopterin levels, indicating immune system activiation (103,114-116). Depending upon genetic predisposition, Hg can induce immune activation, an expansion of Th2 subsets, and decreased NK activity (117-120).Population CharacteristicsIn most affected children, autistic symptoms emerge gradually, although there are cases of sudden onset (3). The earliest abnormalities have been detected in 4 month olds and consist of subtle movement disturbances; subtle motor-sensory disturbances have been observed in 9 month olds (49). More overt speech and hearing difficulties become noticeable to parents and pediatricians between 12 and 18 months (2). TMS vaccines have been given in repeated intervals starting from infancy and continuing until 12 to 18 months. While HgP symptoms, may arise suddenly in especially sensitive individuals (11), usually there is a preclinical "silent stage" in which subtle neurological changes are occuring (121) and then a gradual emergence of symptoms. The first symptoms are typically sensory- and motor-related, which are followed by speech and hearing deficits, and finally the full array of HgP characteristics (40). Thus, both the timing and nature of symptom emergence in ASD are fully consistent with a vaccinal Hg etiology.This parallel is reinforced by parental reports of excessive amounts of mercury in urine or hair from younger autistic children, as well as some improvement in symptoms with standard chelation therapy (122).The discovery and rise in prevalence of ASD mirrors the introduction and spread of thimerosol in vaccines. Autism was first described in 1943 among children born in the 1930s (123). Thimerosal was first introduced into vaccines in the 1930s (7). In studies conducted prior to 1970, autism prevalence was estimated, at 1 in 2000; in studies from 1970 to 1990 it averaged 1 in 1000 (124). This was a period of increased vaccination rates of the TMS-containing DPT vaccines among children in the developed world. In the early 1990s, the prevalence of autism was found to be 1 in 500 (125), and in 2000 the CDC found 1 in 150 children affected in one community, which was consistent with reports from other areas in the country (126). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, two new TMS vaccines, the HIB and Hepatitis B, were added to the recommended schedule (7).Nearly all US children are immunized, yet only a small proportion develop autism.A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28). An example is acrodynia, which arose in the early 20th Century from mercury in teething powders and afflicted only 1 in 500-1000 children given the same low dose (28). Studies in mice as well as humans indicate that susceptibility to Hg effects arises from genetic status, in some cases including a propensity to autoimmune disorders (113,34,40). ASD exhibits a strong genetic component, with high concordance in monozygotic twins and a higher than expected incidence among siblings (4); autism is also more prevalent in families with autoimmune disorders (106).Additionally, autism is more prevalent among boys than girls, with the ratio estimated at 4:1 (2). Mercury studies in mice and humans consistently report greater effects on males than females, except for kidney damage (57). At high doses, both sexes are affected equally; at low doses only males are affected (38,40,127).DiscussionWe have shown that every major characteristic of autism has been exhibited in at least several cases of documented mercury poisoning.Recently, the FDA and AAP have revealed that the amount of mercury given to infants from vaccinations has exceeded safety levels. The timing of mercury administration via vaccines coincides with the onset of autistic symptoms. Parental reports of autistic children with measurable mercury levels in hair and urine indicate a history of mercury exposure. Thus the standard primary criteria for a diagnosis of mercury poisoning - observable symptoms, known exposure at the time of symptom onset, and detectable levels in biologic samples (11,31) - have been met in autism. As such, mercury toxicity may be a significant etiological factor in at least some cases of regressive autism. Further, each known form of HgP in the past has resulted in a unique variation of mercurialism - e.g., Minamata disease, acrodynia, Mad Hatter´s disease - none of which has been autism, suggesting that the Hg source which may be involved in ASD has not yet been characterized; given that most infants receive eHg via vaccines, and given that the effect on infants of eHg in vaccines has never been studied (129), vaccinal thimerosal should be considered a probable source. It is also possible that vaccinal eHg may be additive to a prenatal mercury load derived from maternal amalgams, immune globulin injections, or fish consumption, and environmental sources.ConclusionThe history of acrodynia illustrates that a severe disorder, afflicting a small but significant percentage of children, can arise from a seemingly benign application of low doses of mercury. This review establishes the likelihood that Hg may likewise be etiologically significant in ASD, with the Hg derived from thimerosal in vaccines rather than teething powders. Due to the extensive parallels between autism and HgP, the likelihood of a causal relationship is great. Given this possibility, TMS should be removed from all childhood vaccines, and the mechanisms of Hg toxicity in autism should be thoroughly investigated. With perhaps 1 in 150 children now diagnosed with ASD, development of HgP-related treatments, such as chelation, would prove beneficial for this large and seemingly growing population.For References Click HereOriginally published in the FEAT (http://www.feat.org) online newsletter. Dr. Mercola´s Comment:This is an excellent review of the mercury-autism link and is well referenced. It has been increasingly obvious that mercury should be screened for in autism which is why I have started to aggressively screen and treat this problem in the autistic children that I care for.This week I post my pediatric mercury detoxification program which is a modification of the program that I have used for adults for many years. I will start chelating my first patients in about one month as many are in the process of preparing for the chelation process with some homeopathic preparations.Table I: Summary Comparison of Traits of Autism & Mercury Poisoning(ASD references in bold; HgP references in italics) Psychiatric Disturbances
    Social deficits, shyness, social withdrawal (1,2,130,131; 21,31,45,53,132
    Repetitive, perseverative, stereotypic behaviors; obsessive-compulsive tendencies (1,2,43,48,133; 20,33-35,132)
    Depression/depressive traits, mood swings, flat affect; impaired face recognition (14,15,17,103, 134,135; 19,21,24,26,31)
    Anxiety; schizoid tendencies; irrational fears (2,15,16; 21,27,29,31)
    Irritability, aggression, temper tantrums (12,13,43; 18,21,22,25)
    Lacks eye contact; impaired visual fixation (HgP)/ problems in joint attention (ASD) (3,36,136,137; 18,19,34)
    Speech and Language Deficits
    Loss of speech, delayed language, failure to develop speech (1-3,138,139; 11,23,24,27,30,37)
    Dysarthria; articulation problems (3; 21,25,27,39)
    Speech comprehension deficits (3,4,140; 9,25,34,38)
    Verbalizing and word retrieval problems (HgP); echolalia, word use and pragmatic errors (ASD) (1,3,36; 21,27,70)
    Sensory Abnormalities
    Abnormal sensation in mouth and extremities (2,49; 25,28,34,39)
    Sound sensitivity; mild to profound hearing loss (2,47,48; 19,23-25,39,40)
    Abnormal touch sensations; touch aversion (2,49; 23,24,45,53)
    Over-sensitivity to light; blurred vision (2,50,51; 18,23,31,34,45)
    Motor Disorders
    Flapping, myoclonal jerks, choreiform movements, circling, rocking, toe walking, unusual postures (2,3,43,44; 11,19,27,30,31,34,39)
    Deficits in eye-hand coordination; limb apraxia; intention tremors (HgP)/problems with intentional movement or imitation (ASD) (2,3,36,181; 25,29,32,38,70,87)
    Abnormal gait and posture, clumsiness and incoordination; difficulties sitting, lying, crawling, and walking; problem on one side of body (4,41,42,123; 18,25,31,34,39,45)
    Cognitive Impairments
    Poor concentration, attention, response inhibition (HgP)/shifting attention (ASD) (4,36,153; 21,25,31,38,141)
    Uneven performance on IQ subtests; verbal IQ higher than performance IQ (3,4,36; 31,38)
    Poor short term, verbal, and auditory memory (36,140; 21,29,31,35,38,87,141)
    Borderline intelligence, mental retardation - some cases reversible (2,3,151,152; 19,25,31,39,70)
    Poor visual and perceptual motor skills; impairment in simple reaction time (HgP)/ lower performance on timed tests (ASD) (4,140,181; 21,29,142) Agitation, unprovoked crying, grimacing, staring spells 3,154; 11,23,37,88) Sleep difficulties (2,156,157; 11,22,31)
    Deficits in understanding abstract ideas & symbolism; degeneration of higher mental powers (HgP)/sequencing, planning & organizing (ASD); difficulty carrying out complex commands (3,4,36,153; 9,18,37,57,142)
    Unusual Behaviors
    Self injurious behavior, e.g. head banging (3,154; 11,18,53) ADHD traits (2,36,155; 35,70)
    ADHD traits (2,36,155; 35,70) )
    Agitation, unprovoked crying, grimacing, staring spells 3,154; 11,23,37,88
    Sleep difficulties (2,156,157; 11,22,31)
    Physical Disturbances
    Hyper- or hypotonia; abnormal reflexes; decreased muscle strength, especially upper body; incontinence; problems chewing, swallowing (3,42,145,181; 19,27,31,32,39)
    Rashes, dermatitis, eczema, itching (107,146; 22,26,143)
    Diarrhea; abdominal pain/discomfort, constipation, ?colitis? (107,147-149; 18,23,26,27,31,32)
    Anorexia; nausea (HgP)/vomiting (ASD); poor appetite (HgP)/restricted diet (ASD) (2,123; 18,22)
    Lesions of ileum and colon; increased gut permeability (147,150; 57,144)
    Table II: Summary Comparison of Biological Abnormalities in Mercury Exposure & Autism
    Mercury Exposure Autism
    Biochemistry
    Binds -SH groups; blocks sulfate transporter in intestines, kidneys (40,93) ) Low sulfate levels (91,92)
    Reduces glutathione availability; inhibits enzymes of glutathione metabolism; glutathione needed in neurons, cells, and liver to detoxify heavy metals; reduces glutathione peroxidase and reductase (97,100,161,162) Low levels of glutathione; decreased ability of liver to detoxify xenobiotics; abnormal glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes (91,94,95)
    Disrupts purine and pyrimidine metabolism (10,97,158,159) Purine and pyrimidine metabolism errors lead to autistic features (2,101,102)
    Disrupts mitochondrial activities, especially in brain (160,163,164) Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in brain (76,172
    Immune System
    Sensitive individuals more likely to have allergies, asthma, autoimmune-like symptoms, especially rheumatoid-like ones (8,11,18,24,28,31,111,113) ) More likely to have allergies and asthma; familial presence of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis; IgA deficiencies (103,106-109,115)
    Can produce an immune response in CNS; causes brain/MBP autoantibodies (18,111,165 On-going immune response in CNS; brain/MBP autoantibodies present (104,105,109,110)
    Causes overproduction of Th2 subset; kills/inhibits lymphocytes, T-cells, and monocytes; decreases NK T-cell activity; induces or suppresses IFNg & IL-2 (100,112,117-120,166) Skewed immune-cell subset in the Th2 direction; decreased responses to T-cell mitogens; reduced NK T-cell function; increased IFNg & IL-12 (103,108,114-116,173,174)
    CNS Structure
    Selectively targets brain areas unable to detoxify or reduce Hg-induced oxidative stress (40,56,161) Specific areas of brain pathology; many functions spared (36)
    Accummulates in amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex; damages Purkinje and granule cells in cerebellum; brain stem defects in some cases (10,34,40,70-73) Pathology in amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex; damage to Purkinje and granule cells in cerebellum; brain stem defects in some cases (36,60-69)
    Causes abnormal neuronal cytoarchitecture; disrupts neuronal migration, microtubules, and cell division; reduces NCAMs (10,28,57-59,161) Neuronal disorganization; increased neuronal cell replication, increased glial cells; depressed expression of NCAMs (4,54,55)
    Progressive microcephaly (24) Progressive microcephaly and macrocephaly (175)
    Prevents presynaptic serotonin release and inhibits serotonin transport; causes calcium disruptions (78,79,163,167,168) Decreased serotonin synthesis in children; abnormal calcium metabolism (76,77,103,179)
    Alters dopamine systems; peroxidine deficiency in rats resembles mercurialism in humans (8,80) Either high or low dopamine levels; positive response to peroxidine, which lowers dopamine levels (2,177,178)
    Elevates epinephrine and norepinephrine levels by blocking enzyme that degrades epinephrine (81,160) Elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine (2)
    Elevates glutamate (21,171) Elevated glutamate and aspartate (82,176)
    Leads to cortical acetylcholine deficiency; increases muscarinic receptor density in hippocampus and cerebellum (57,170) Cortical acetylcholine deficiency; reduced muscarinic receptor binding in hippocampus (83)
    Causes demyelinating neuropathy (22,169) Demyelination in brain (105)
    Neurophysiology
    Causes abnormal EEGs, epileptiform activity, variable patterns, e.g., subtle, low amplitude seizure activities (27,31,34,86-89) Abnormal EEGs, epileptiform activity, variable patterns, including subtle, low amplitude seizure activities (2,4,84,85)
    Causes abnormal vestibular nystagmus responses; loss of sense of position in space (9,19,34,70) Abnormal vestibular nystagmus responses; loss of sense of position in space (27,180)
    Results in autonomic disturbance: excessive sweating, poor circulation, elevated heart rate (11,18,31,45) Autonomic disturbance: unusual sweating, poor circulation, elevated heart rate (17,180)

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